The Science Of Scientific Writing    Synthesis Exercise

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How to do it


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: One Main Sentence

SET B: Paragraphs: With an Introduction

SET C: Paragraphs: Main Sentence Last


PART II: The Paper and its Sections


SET 1: Argument Parts

SET 2: Indicator Words

SET 3: Refining Claims

SET 4: Locating Arguments in Prose

SET 5: Rationale's Essay Planner

SET 6: Evidence in Arguments: Basis Boxes

SET 7: Assessing

SET 8: More on Assessing

SET 9: Analysis Maps

SET 10: Assessing Again

Synthesis 1: Position-Early Paragraphs

Synthesis 2: Position-Final Paragraphs

Synthesis 3: Writing a Discussion I

Synthesis 4: Writing a Discussion II

Synthesis 3 - Writing up a Discussion I

Download the document Malachite.doc. It provides the Introduction and Results sections for an imaginary paper for which you have to write the Discussion.


A. Compose the central argument of the Discussion as an argument map with the top claim as:

Our findings support previous speculation that the skin of the Malachite Marmoset has photosynthetic capabilities.

B. Write up a Discussion with at least 3 paragraphs. The first paragraph should be Point-final and provide a brief map for the main body of the Discussion. All the paragraphs in the main body should be point-early. There should be a concluding point-final paragraph.


1. Some interpretative hints have been added after each sub-section of the Results.These are NOT part of the Results section proper, since there should be no (or an absolute minimum of) any interpretation in that section.But they will help you in composing the map and the text.