The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set E     Scientific Sections    Methods: Frame of Reference + Elaboration      Methods: Coherence         Exercise 1       Final Page .

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OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraphs with Something Extra: Points and Tails

SET D: The Generic Section: Expectations and Maps as Blueprints

SET E: Scientific Sections: The Methods and Results

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : Sentences

SET I : The Paper as a Whole



PART II: The Paper and its Sections


SET 1: Argument Parts

SET 2: Indicator Words

SET 3: Refining Claims

SET 4: Locating Arguments in Prose

SET 5: Rationale's Essay Planner

SET 6: Evidence in Arguments: Basis Boxes

SET 7: Assessing

SET 8: More on Assessing

SET 9: Analysis Maps

SET 10: Assessing Again

Synthesis 1: Position-Early Paragraphs

Synthesis 2: Position-Final Paragraphs

Synthesis 3: Writing a Discussion I

Synthesis 4: Writing a Discussion II

Exercise 1

Choose a research paper in your field of interest, and provide a URL or email the instructor a PDF. Create a map for its Methods section, keeping in mind the following:

1. Each paragraph should be allocated only ONE box in the map. In a more typical section, this would be the Framing Sentence (or Point Sentence) but a paragraph in the Methods will not necessarily have a Framing Sentence, and will hardly ever have a Point Sentence. The role of the Framing Sentence may be played by a sub-heading, or it might be assumed that the reader can guess what it might be. Accordingly, you may have to add in your own guesses (make a note of this when you do).

2. The language and structure of the map should make it clear that it is a Report. Any non-report content you add in should be added in as Notes.

3. The map should ideally capture both the experimental logic (and any other secondary organising system, e.g. chronological order), and the organisation of key sentences and headings that shape the text for the reader.

When you have finished the map, write a Frame of Reference paragraph (or several) for the Methods section that:

1. "Looks forward", in that it tells us what will be covered in the Methods section .

2. "Looks backward", in that it provides a conceptual bridge between the simple account of the methodology in the Introduction and the detailed account that is provided in the main part of the Methods. It should provide a rationale for the complete set of procedures, such that we understand how the approach can help solve the problem/s posed in the Introduction.