The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set C     Paragraphs with something extra: points and tails    Paragraphs that end with a bang!   Using maps to write Point-final paragraphs  Exercise 1   Exercise 2    Exercise 3   Further ideas on Point-final paragraphs   Exercise 4     Paragraphs that are short, or have a tail     Final Page.

Course Home

OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraphs with Something Extra: Points and Tails

SET D: The Generic Section: Expectations and Maps as Blueprints

SET E: Scientific Sections: The Methods and Results

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : Sentences

SET I : The Paper as a Whole



PART II: The Paper and its Sections


SET 1: Argument Parts

SET 2: Indicator Words

SET 3: Refining Claims

SET 4: Locating Arguments in Prose

SET 5: Rationale's Essay Planner

SET 6: Evidence in Arguments: Basis Boxes

SET 7: Assessing

SET 8: More on Assessing

SET 9: Analysis Maps

SET 10: Assessing Again

Synthesis 1: Position-Early Paragraphs

Synthesis 2: Position-Final Paragraphs

Synthesis 3: Writing a Discussion I

Synthesis 4: Writing a Discussion II

Paragraphs with something extra: points and tails



In Set B we saw that readers expect all long paragraphs to start with a Frame of Reference, of one to three sentences in length, and concluding with a Framing Sentence. The remainder of the paragraph is its Elaboration. In Set C we will look at two minor variations of this pattern, where the Elaboration is itself followed by its own concluding sentence that provides content either:


(1) of such significance that we will call it the paragraph's Point Sentence.


(2) of such insignificance (but often considerable style) that it is called the paragraph's "tail" or coda.


Befitting the relative significance of the content they deliver (and their frequency of use) nearly all of this Set will focus on Point Sentences, with only some "throw-away" comments at the end on codas. We will also briefly consider short paragraphs (three sentences or less).