The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set 3     Set 3-Refining claims ClaimsSeven rulesExercises 1-6Exercises 7-10Final Page Set 3.

Course Home

OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraphs with Something Extra: Points and Tails

SET D: The Generic Section: Expectations and Maps as Blueprints

SET E: Scientific Sections: The Methods and Results

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : Sentences

SET I : The Paper as a Whole



PART II: The Paper and its Sections


SET 1: Argument Parts

SET 2: Indicator Words

SET 3: Refining Claims

SET 4: Locating Arguments in Prose

SET 5: Rationale's Essay Planner

SET 6: Evidence in Arguments: Basis Boxes

SET 7: Assessing

SET 8: More on Assessing

SET 9: Analysis Maps

SET 10: Assessing Again

Synthesis 1: Position-Early Paragraphs

Synthesis 2: Position-Final Paragraphs

Synthesis 3: Writing a Discussion I

Synthesis 4: Writing a Discussion II


Exercises 7-10

Use the seven rules to convert the following pieces of text into clear, well-formed claims on your workspace.

These sentences all express pieces of reasoning, so refine the claims then color the boxes appropriately and construct argument maps.

7. Bollywood films are great as they're entertaining and culturally interesting

Model answer


8. We should definitely go ahead and ask for Richard's advice because he's very good indeed with many varied types of computers.

Model answer


9. I'd enjoy myself at the beach: Love that swimming and sunbathing!

Model answer


10. The Beatles - great music, as they had talent

Model answer



  • No reasoning in a box
  • Only one thought per box
  • Express claims using full sentences
  • Claims should be capable of being true or false
  • Remove any words that don't contribute to the claim's argumentative force
  • Make claims easy to understand
  • Boxes should make sense when read in isolation




Content of this page drawn in whole or part from the Austhink Rationale Exercises with permission from Austhink.