The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set B      Paragraphs: Intro to Readers' Expectations    The Landmark  What makes a landmark?   Exercise 1 Quiz   Landmark should appear early    Exercise 2    A kick in the tail    A plan for writing landmark-final paras     Exercise 3   Exercise 4   Exercise 5    Exercise 6     Final Page.

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OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraph Coherence and Cohesion

SET D: Sentences

SET E: Scientific Sections (including Methods)

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : The Paper as a Whole

How to use maps as a basis for a landmark-final paragraph (in 3 easy steps)

Most commonly you will want to use the landmark-final paragraph pattern to soften the tone of an argument. As might have become obvious from the examples so far this is most important in the Introduction where the landmark-final format is just one of several strategies that writers look to in order to avoid appearing arrogant or didactic. Assuming you have started planning any of your arguments using a mapping approach, then you will need to make some adjustments before you start writing. An argument map is closer in structure to a landmark-first paragraph, but if you follow the three steps below, the adjustment will be quite easy.


Compose a map in the normal pattern, with the arguments claim (which will later become the concluding landmark sentence) in the top box as per usual.




Shift the text of the future concluding landmark sentence to the bottom of the map, leaving a gap to be filled at the top. Use a red claim box, unconnected to the main map.




Fill in the gap with a pointer sentence , i.e. the sentence that prepares the reader for the landmark sentence. In this case, the landmark sentence is a claim (i.e. a suggested answer), so the pointer sentence should be a question (explicit or implicit).