The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set C    Coherence &Cohesion    Coherence I   Exercise 1    Coherence II    Exercise 2    Cohesion   Exercise 3     Final Page.

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OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraph Coherence and Cohesion

SET D: Sentences

SET E: Scientific Sections (including Methods)

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : The Paper as a Whole

Exercise 3

Your job is to make the following paragraph more coherent and cohesive by looking for, and remedying, any of the various "mistakes" referred to in this Set. I suggest you first try to map the content using Rationale, to help you organise the information. Having done that, then convert the map into one or more coherent, cohesive paragraphs.

Co-existence of sympatric ungulates that depend on similar resources has also puzzled ecologists for long time. How do several species of herbivores that apparently exploit similar resources co-exist? To decipher this puzzle, research in Africa and North America mainly focused on the mechanisms of resource (Gwynne & Bell 1968; Jenkins & Wright 1988) and habitat partitioning (Schwartz & Ellis 1981). The savannah and prairie systems of Africa and North America have also been the focus of studies assessing the effect of domestic and wild herbivory on plant communities, plant responses and plant productivity (see McNaughton 1976, 1978, 1985; Coppock et al. 1983; Milchunas 1988; Maschinski 2001). Effect of grazing on vegetation structure has also attracted attention. Studies on this subject in Africa established the fact that bush lands were invading savannah due to over grazing by livestock (Roques et al. 2001; Langevelde et al. 2003). Owing to the long term nature of studies and logistic difficulties in measuring competition between sympatric herbivores, the issue has received little attention. Close interaction between wild herbivores and domestic cattle also fueled ecological research to examine effects of livestock grazing on plant communities and other sympatric wild herbivores (Bokdam and Gleichman 2000; Hobbs et al. 1996). Studies often measured resource overlap between different herbivores but failed to explain whether it was competition or resource sharing. It is thus difficult to establish the nature of interaction between livestock and wild herbivores. The evidence suggesting decline in reproductive performance of herbivores due to density dependant forage decline (Guinness & Albon 1982 in Mishra et al. 2004) and the data suggesting decline in forage availability for wild herbivores because of high densities of domestic livestock is often ignored. Recent research from the tropical forests of south India shows that exclusion of livestock facilitates rise in wild herbivore population (Madhusudan 2004). Recent studies on Tibetan argali (Ovis amon hodgsoni), Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) and bharal (Pseudois nayaur) from the Indian Trans-Himalaya have looked at various facets of livestock and wild herbivore competition. Argali showed behavioral responses to presence of livestock by moving to higher and steeper slopes with poor forage quality, indicating competitive displacement (Namgail et al. 2006). There is also empirical evidence showing competition between Himalayan Ibex and four out of seven livestock species for forage in its range (Bagchi et al. 2004). Detailed studies on bharal-livestock interaction have brought light to the issue of possible reduction in bharal population densities as a result of competition for forage with livestock (Mishra et al. 2004). High overlap in the diet of bharal and livestock lead to reduced forage availability for bharal. Bharal populations in areas with high densities of livestock also showed show poor infant to female ratios (Mishra et al. 2004). As four fifth of rangelands in the Spiti valley of Himachal Pradesh are overstocked (Mishra, Prins & Van Wieren 2001) understanding bharal foraging strategies in presence and absence of livestock gains additional importance. Under this light I propose this study to examine overwintering strategies that bharal employ to meet their resource requirement during the resource lean period and its effects on demography of bharal.