The Science Of Scientific Writing    Set 2     Set 2 - Indicator words : 3 types of Indicators : Example : Exercise 1 : Exercise 2 : Exercise 3 : Exercise 4 : Exercise 5 : Exercise 6-Quiz : Exercise 7 : Final page Set 2.

Course Home

OVERVIEW: The way to well-written science

How to do the Course


PART I: Paragraphs and Sentences

SET A: Paragraphs: The Maps Behind Them

SET B: Paragraphs: Using Maps to Meet Readers' Expectations

SET C: Paragraphs with Something Extra: Points and Tails

SET D: The Generic Section: Expectations and Maps as Blueprints

SET E: Scientific Sections: The Methods and Results

SET F: Scientific Sections: The Discussion

SET G : Scientific Sections: The Introduction

SET H : Sentences

SET I : The Paper as a Whole



PART II: The Paper and its Sections


SET 1: Argument Parts

SET 2: Indicator Words

SET 3: Refining Claims

SET 4: Locating Arguments in Prose

SET 5: Rationale's Essay Planner

SET 6: Evidence in Arguments: Basis Boxes

SET 7: Assessing

SET 8: More on Assessing

SET 9: Analysis Maps

SET 10: Assessing Again

Synthesis 1: Position-Early Paragraphs

Synthesis 2: Position-Final Paragraphs

Synthesis 3: Writing a Discussion I

Synthesis 4: Writing a Discussion II


In these exercises you'll be dragging and dropping text onto the workspace.  Highlight the portion of text you want, hold down the mouse button and drag your selected text onto the workspace.  Your selected text will appear in a new white box.

Exercise 1

1. Make a Rationale Reasoning map of the following argument:

The war in Iraq was illegal because the war in Iraq violated international law.

Drag and drop sections of the above text onto the workspace to proceed.  This works with any version of Rationale.

You will need to identify the indicator word to do this: it reveals the structure of the map.


  • Find the indicator word
  • Drag the pieces of text that express claims out onto the workspace
  • Don't drag the indicator out!  It doesn't go on the argument map: it isn't a claim, but rather a 'signpost' to tell us how the argument goes
  • Work out what kind of indicator it is: is what follows the indicator a reason, objection, or position?
  • Change the colour of the boxes to indicate whether each is a position, reason, or objection
  • Assemble the map from your colored boxes
  • Note: if you connect the boxes before you change their colors Rationale will assume you are making a Grouping map, rather than a Reasoning map.  You will need to click on your map and then click on 'Reasoning' in the ribbon menu above to fix this.

2. Check your work against the model.



Content of this page drawn in whole or part from the Austhink Rationale Exercises with permission from Austhink .